Tag Archives: IBAHRI

Canada: Ottawa urged to help Canada’s lawyers left behind in Afghanistan

16/12/21

The founder and managing partner of a Kabul law firm that spent years working for Canada’s embassy in Afghanistan says many of his colleagues were left behind and are in hiding, so he is urging the federal government to quickly bring them to Canada.

Saeeq Shajjan’s firm, Shajjan & Associates, was hired by the Canadian embassy in Kabul and Global Affairs Canada in 2013, and the contract is valid until Dec. 31. Mr. Shajjan and his family were first evacuated to Qatar after the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan in August, then travelled to Canada. Twenty-nine of his colleagues and their families were not as fortunate.

He said the past four months have been draining and he has given no thought to starting his new life in Canada. “I’m really concerned about the safety and security of everyone who is left behind,” he said.

“It’s so difficult to receive these calls and messages from my colleagues. Some of them, they’re literally in hiding. They would move from one place to a different place to make sure that they keep their safety and they’re not traced.”

In July, Marco Mendicino, who was immigration minister at the time, announced that Ottawa would resettle thousands of Afghans who had worked alongside Canadian troops and diplomatic staff through a special immigration program. The government later promised to bring 40,000 Afghan refugees to Canada.

Immigration Minister Sean Fraser has said that helping people inside Afghanistan is particularly challenging because the Taliban control exit routes, so Ottawa has to work with partners on the ground to ensure their safe passage.

[…]

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-ottawa-urged-to-help-canadas-lawyers-left-behind-in-afghanistan/

https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/shajjan-kabul-law-firm-canada-embassy-refugee-backlog-1.6284699

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-taliban-shoots-dead-10-year-old-afghan-girl-whose-family-was-preparing/

https://www.france24.com/en/tv-shows/the-debate/20211216-inside-the-new-afghanistan-france-24-s-exclusive-look-at-life-under-the-taliban

https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/en/reports/context-culture/music-censorship-in-2021-the-silencing-of-a-nation-and-its-cultural-identity/

https://www.jurist.org/news/2021/12/un-deputy-rights-chief-updates-council-on-afghanistan-humanitarian-crisis/

https://hayes-solicitors.ie/News/The-Plight-of-Afghan-Female-Judges

https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/12/16/joint-letter-biden-administration-expressing-concern-regarding-humanitarian-parole

https://news.fr-24.com/nouvelles/609634.html (FRANCAIS)

IBA appeals to UN for denunciation of Taliban take-over of Afghanistan Independent Bar Association

15/12/21

In an open letter to United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres, the International Bar Association (IBA) expressed grave concern over the Taliban take-over of the Afghanistan Independent Bar Association (AIBA) and has appealed for the ‘unparalleled voice’ of the UN to publicly:

  • Denounce the violation of the independence of the legal profession;
  • Raise concern about the appropriation of the AIBA database, which includes details relating to AIBA registered lawyers, staff and committee members; and
  • Condemn the seizure of the AIBA bank account and forfeiture of funds.

Following a recent public announcement by the Taliban stating that it would incorporate the AIBA into its Ministry of Justice (MoJ), the IBA was informed that on 23 November 2021 the Taliban forcefully broke-up a meeting being held in the AIBA office and took control of the Association. As a consequence of this directive and meeting intrusion, the Taliban now has access to the AIBA database that contains the personnel and professional records of Afghanistan’s estimated 2,500 lawyers, as well as AIBA staffers and committee members. The Taliban now also controls the non-governmental organisation’s bank account and funds.

IBA President Sternford Moyo, Chair of the IBA Bar Issues Commission Kimitoshi Yabuki, and IBA Executive Director Dr Mark Ellis, state in the letter that the incorporation of the AIBA into the Taliban’s MoJ has ‘completely compromised the independence of the legal profession in Afghanistan’, and that ‘[t]he ramifications on the Rule of Law, the administration of justice and the further contraction of the rights of women and girls cannot be overestimated.’

The letter states that the AIBA has been stripped of the ‘authority to issue Afghanistan’s lawyers with licences to practice their profession and has demanded that all lawyers that currently hold a licence reapply to the Taliban’s MoJ’, and that ‘those who do not submit applications as directed by the Taliban will be prevented from practising’.

[…]

https://www.ibanet.org/IBA-appeals-to-UN-for-support-on-Taliban-take-over-of-AIBA

https://www.jurist.org/news/2021/12/afghanistan-dispatches-the-safety-of-afghan-judges-prosecutors-and-lawyers-particularly-women-legal-professionals-is-a-matter-for-particular-alarm/

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Taliban takeover threatens independence of Afghan Bar

09/12/21

The humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated markedly since the Taliban toppled Kabul on 15 August, with lawyers and judges increasingly under threat. The legal profession came under a renewed attack 100 days later as Taliban forces stormed the offices of the country’s only bar association and detained and threatened its members and staff.

The attack on the offices of the Afghanistan Independent Bar Association (AIBA) took place during an extraordinary meeting of AIBA’s Leadership Council on 23 November. Najla Raheel, AIBA’s Vice-President, was attending the meeting virtually when the line went dead. She learned later that armed Taliban had entered the building, closed the offices, tore down nameplates and demanded her colleagues hand over all of AIBA’s goods and documents. ‘We built the Association with the blood of our hearts,’ she told Global Insight. ‘Now my colleagues, who include women, are in a very bad situation. The Taliban may harm them and their families at any moment.’

Raheel and AIBA President, Ruhullah Qarizada, are two of the AIBA Executive team that have managed to flee Afghanistan with their families. The Taliban announced that the AIBA will be merged with the Ministry of Justice and has appointed one of its own leaders as president, effectively stripping the association of any independence.

Taliban leaders have swiftly shut down local protests and press conferences condemning AIBA’s takeover. Qarizada is particularly concerned that the Taliban has access to AIBA’s bank account and its database, which contains details of more than 2,500 registered lawyers. ‘In this database everything is written about these lawyers – their family members, their addresses, everything,’ he says. ‘The Taliban should not access that database because it will put lawyers’ lives in more danger.’

On 30 November the IBA sent a letter to UN Secretary General António Guterres highlighting its concerns over the Taliban’s seizure of AIBA’s database, bank account and its continued moves to compromise the independence of the country’s legal profession.

The AIBA was established in 2008 after the IBA raised considerable funds and worked jointly with local Afghan lawyers to create Afghanistan’s first bar association. ‘What they accomplished and their mission showcased the new Afghanistan at the time and particularly focused on the rule of law, an independent judiciary and women’s rights,’ says Mark Ellis, Executive Director of the IBA. ‘When the Taliban took over, it was clear to me that the Afghan Independent Bar Association was not only in jeopardy, but it would probably cease to exist.’

The Taliban doesn’t respect the rule of law, lawyers or people

Ruhullah Qarizada
President, Afghanistan Independent Bar Association

This prompted the IBA to embark on fundraising and evacuation efforts in conjunction with international partners to help AIBA’s leadership leave Kabul. $20,000 has been donated so far by several bar associations, but Ellis continues to push for IBA members to provide more financial support.

These efforts complement an intense campaign to evacuate Afghan female judges, lawyers and other vulnerable individuals at risk, including journalists and human rights defenders. Between 30 September and 24 October, the IBA team has worked with international and domestic partners to evacuate close to 500 people, including 103 women and their families, to Greece.

Many families remain in Greece awaiting destinations for onward travel. A number will receive safe passage to Iceland, Ireland, Australia, USA, New Zealand, the UK and Germany, but 70 families have still not been allocated a permanent residence. They have been housed in temporary accommodation thanks to a funding drive by the IBA’s Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI) and generous donations from external partners such as Airbnb. IBAHRI continues to assist them in their resettlement process.

[…]

https://www.ibanet.org/Taliban-takeover-threatens-independence-of-Afghan-Bar

https://www.lemondedudroit.fr/institutions/78844-solidarite-avocats-defenseurs-droits-afghans-fonds-dotation-conseil-national-barreaux-fait-un-appel-aux-dons.html (FRANCAIS)

IBAHRI keeps spotlight on key issues raised at 48th session of the UN Human Rights Council

25/11/21

With a constantly evolving and fast-paced news agenda, human rights issues do not always make the front page. The International Bar Association’s Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI) is committed to highlighting human rights abuses across the world and holding those accountable to justice. At the 48th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC48), the IBAHRI joined other non-governmental organisations in statements condemning international human rights violations, with a particular focus on lawyers under attack, facing arbitrary detention or suppression of their professional activities.

Afghanistan: Since the Taliban takeover of the country in August 2021, gross and systematic human rights violations continue to occur in Afghanistan, including attacks against female lawyers and judges. In partnership with a number of other NGOs, the IBAHRI released a joint open appeal to UN Member States to urge the adoption of a resolution creating a Fact-Finding Mission, or other independent investigative mechanism, for Afghanistan. The IBAHRI welcomes the new agreement of the Human Rights Council (HRC) to appoint a special rapporteur on Afghanistan to probe human rights violations by parties to the conflict, including the Taliban, as an important first step towards achieving oversight, accountability, justice and reparation for the ongoing crisis.

...

Belarus: The legal profession in Belarus is under threat, with attacks against lawyers on the rise. Most recently, Maxim Znak, lawyer for a former candidate for the Belarusian Presidency, was sentenced to a ten-year prison term following a closed-door trial. During the UN Interactive Dialogue the IBAHRI delivered an oral statement on behalf of several NGOs on the human rights situation in Belarus. The IBAHRI condemned the deterioration of the situation on the ground and stressed that the HRC must take action to prevent a further decline. The IBAHRI would welcome full support for the Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Belarus through adequate funding, as well as an examination of the situation by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.

[…]

https://www.ibanet.org/IBAHRI-keeps-spotlight-on-key-issues-raised-at-48th-session-of-the-UN-Human-Rights-Council

Appeal for legal assistance for Afghan women at risk

11/11/21

The International Bar Association, through its Human Rights Institute, has been assisting women at risk, and other vulnerable individuals, in Afghanistan. Through our efforts, and that of a number of other non-governmental organisations, more than 100 women judges, journalists, lawyers and other human rights defenders, plus their families, have been evacuated from Afghanistan. This effort is in addition to assisting the leadership of the now-defunct Afghanistan Independent Bar Association (which the IBA, together with Afghan lawyers, established in 2008) in leaving Kabul.

The vast majority of the evacuees are now in Greece. However, 70 of the families do not yet have final destinations. The Greek authorities have provided them with temporary visas to remain in Greece for a short period. We are currently working to ensure that these families find, and are transferred to, more permanent residences as soon as possible. This is where we need assistance. 

We are seeking lawyers who are willing to assist these families by advocating for them in securing passage to their ultimate location. We are not seeking financial assistance; we are looking for lawyers ready to give pro bono time to assist the families.

Please let us know if you can assist by contacting us at Afghan.Appeal@int-bar.org. We will then contact you directly as to the next steps of engagement. Thank you in advance for your support!

https://www.ibanet.org/Appeal-for-legal-assistance-for-Afghan-women-at-risk

https://www.delfi.lt/en/politics/lithuanian-bar-association-donates-eur-1-000-to-persecuted-counterparts-in-afghanistan.d?id=88656817

https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-provides-a-new-home-for-vulnerable-afghan-female-judges

https://www.smh.com.au/national/from-kabul-with-hope-noor-s-journey-from-afghanistan-to-australia-20211020-p591lt.html

https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2021/10/27/why-the-hazara-people-fear-genocide-in-afghanistan

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2021/11/15/refugies-afghans-face-a-l-horreur-face-a-l-urgence-un-changement-de-politique-s-impose_6102076_3232.html (FRANCAIS)

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https://forms.newsletter.cnb.avocat.fr/5c827a83b95cee1a1bbbd87f/qBuKPjLQQqWrXTi3c3qTNg/T7xmNy_2RF6zyrasWqQrQg/form.html

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May be an image of 4 people, people standing and text that says "StudentsforHumanity #StopHazaraGenocide Panel Discussion WITH SPECIAL GUESTS SAJJAD ASKARY Afghanistan FARKHONDEH AKBARI n fohanist Via: Zoom (link in Bio) MUZAFARA Date: Tuesday 16th of November Time: 6:30pm AFGHANISTAN Kaboul"

Registrations can be made here: https://linktr.ee/ourrace

Afghanistan: Taliban Continue Crackdown on Human Rights Defenders

12/11/21

World News | Taliban Continue Crack Down on Human Rights Defenders

[…]

A human rights defender who spoke to Amnesty International emphasized that “journalists, activists and anti-Taliban intellectuals, writers/artists, female journalists, former police, army, and intelligence officers, as well as female athletes, judges, advocates and singers, are all at immediate risk”

[…]

https://www.latestly.com/agency-news/world-news-taliban-continue-crack-down-on-human-rights-defenders-3048249.html

https://www.aninews.in/news/world/asia/taliban-continue-crack-down-on-human-rights-defenders20211112170154/

https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/afghan-women-lawyers-run-face-life-limbo-abroad-2021-10-25/

https://www.democracynow.org/2021/11/12/headlines/5_000_afghan_refugees_fleeing_to_iran_every_day_as_humanitarian_crisis_worsens

https://www.reuters.com/legal/legalindustry/rbg-afghanistan-other-women-judges-honored-amid-taliban-threat-2021-11-12/

https://www.indiablooms.com/world-details/SA/32102/afghanistan-taliban-govt-announces-to-form-military-court.html

https://news.yahoo.com/justice-delayed-taliban-build-legal-020043196.html

Click to access EN_Call-endangered-lawyers-in-Afghanistan.pdf

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In Belarus, Lukashenka’s Government Targets Lawyers And The Legal Profession As A Whole

12/11/21

"Behind every tyrant in history have stood lawyers, prosecutors, and judges who justified his rule and punished his opponents for their supposed crimes," said lawyer Maksim Znak in accepting the International Bar Association Award for Outstanding Contribution to Human Rights.

At the beginning of the month, new government-sponsored amendments to the Belarusian Law on the Bar and Legal Advocacy came into effect that have been widely criticized as intended to impose government control over the legal profession and undermine its independence.

The new legislation comes in the wake of a massive crackdown on lawyers individually in which about three dozen defense attorneys — many defending prominent opposition figures and anti-government activists — have been deprived of their law licenses.

“Lawyers are people who defend citizens from the authorities,” Dzmitry Layeuski, a prominent defense attorney who was stripped of his license in July, told RFE/RL’s Belarus Service. “Now lawyers themselves need defense. But what we see is indifference from the public.”

On October 25, lawyer Natallya Matskevich, whose clients included jailed would-be presidential candidates Viktar Babaryka and Syarhey Tsikhanouski, was expelled from the Belarusian Collegium of Lawyers, the country’s bar association, for unspecified alleged wrongdoing. She was at least the fifth attorney working to defend Babaryka to lose her license.

The government’s targeting of lawyers is part of a massive crackdown on dissent following the disputed August 2020 presidential election that handed a sixth term to strongman leader Alyaksandr Lukashenka. Thousands of people have been arrested, and most top opposition figures have either been jailed or pushed out of the country.

The European Union, the United States, Canada, and other countries have refused to recognize Lukashenka as Belarus’s legitimate leader and have imposed sanctions on him and several senior Belarusian officials in response to the “falsification” of the vote and the postelection crackdown.

However, Minsk’s latest moves include changing the rules of legal accreditation to undermine the already-compromised independence of the Belarusian bar association, with potential long-term effects for the entire country.

Attacking The Defenders?

“The crackdown on lawyers who dare to do their job and assist all those who are arbitrarily detained or otherwise harassed by the Belarusian government is a sign of a severe deterioration of the human rights situation in Belarus, a deterioration that will shape [Lukashenka’s] sixth term in office and beyond,” wrote international rights activist Ewelina Ochab in a column for Forbes in August.

The new amendments to the Law on the Bar and Legal Advocacy were passed in May and took effect on November 1. They restrict which lawyers and law firms are able to take on the defense of clients facing criminal or administrative charges.

All lawyers applying for licenses must be approved in advance by the Justice Ministry and the amended law empowers the ministry to develop and enforce a code of professional ethics for lawyers. It creates a Qualification Commission, under the control of the Justice Ministry. The Justice Ministry now controls the “election” of heads of regional bar associations and has the power to dismiss them. The ministry also has the power to demand any documents from bar associations or individual lawyers.

[…]

https://www.rferl.org/a/belarus-liquidated-legal-profession/31558941.html

https://pace.coe.int/en/news/8488/pace-president-condemns-recent-reprisals-against-civil-society-and-human-rights-defenders-in-belarus

https://www.ibanet.org/Belarus-Lawyers-Ludmila-Kazak-and-Maksim-Znak-win-the-2021-IBA-Human-Rights-Award

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxim_Znak

Advocacy charter Hungary

07/10/21

Advocacy charter Hungary

Lawyers for Lawyers, together with the International Bar Association Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI), submitted an advocacy charter to several country delegations to draw attention to the situation of lawyers in Hungary with regard to the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of Hungary. In March 2021, Lawyers for Lawyers and the IBAHRI submitted a report for the UPR of Hungary.

In the report, Lawyers for Lawyers and the IBAHRI have expressed their concern about the independence of the legal profession, legislative initiatives by the Hungarian government, and the public rhetoric against lawyers and judges.

Lawyers for Lawyers and the IBAHRI have expressed their concern about the independence of the legal profession, legislation and legislative initiatives impacting the judicial independence, and the public rhetoric against lawyers and judges. With adoption of the so-called “Stop Soros” legislation of 2018, the Hungarian government has restricted the rights of lawyers to carry out their professional duties independently and curtained their freedom of association by criminalizing the legal assistance provided by the immigration lawyers and legal NGOs to undocumented migrants.

Moreover, the Hungarian government adopted a new law in 2019 that targets the independence of the judicial system by granting the possibility to public authorities to file a constitutional complaint with the Constitutional Court instead of passing through the ordinary court system. As the independence of the Constitutional Court has been seriously undermined by the governing majority, the Court has been reluctant to hold authorities accountable for their wrongful acts. Moreover, through this new law Constitutional Court judges after their retirement could almost automatically become judges of the Hungarian Supreme Court. This would allow the ruling majority, which currently needs two-third majority in Parliament to elect Constitutional Court justices, to indirectly select and have so-called ‘loyal judges’ at the Supreme Court as well. This might have a direct effect on further eroding impartiality principle.

Lastly, according to our information, media sources have been widely used in Hungary to target, discredit, and demonize lawyers and judges that criticize the government, and uphold human rights. Herewith, the public rhetoric portrays lawyers as the enemies of the Hungarian state as well as defenders of terrorists and criminals.

https://www.upr-info.org/en/review/Hungary

ATTACKS ON HUMAN RIGHTS LAWYERS IN ZIMBABWE

21/09/21

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The latest research report by the ZLHR highlights the current situation of lawyers in Zimbabwe. The report outlines the political situation in Zimbabwe, as well the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally the report demonstrates how lawyers in Zimbabwe have been barred from representing their clients, have become subjects to arbitrary arrests, and have even been attacked for practicing their profession. Read on for more on this.

Introduction

Lawyers play a vital role in upholding the rule of law and the protection of human rights, including the rights to effective remedy, due process of law, fair trial and the right of freedom from torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Their work is indispensable for public confidence in the administration of justice, and to ensure effective justice for all. All persons are entitled to call upon the assistance of a lawyer of their choice to provide legal services. It is the responsibility of lawyers to protect and establish the rights of citizens from whatever manner in which those rights may be threatened and defend them in all stages of legal proceedings. To fulfil their professional duties effectively, lawyers should be able to practice law independently in accordance with recognized laws, standards and ethics. They should be free from improper interferences, any fear of reprisals, or unreasonable restrictions.

[…]

Attacks against lawyers

The beginning of 2020 saw an increase in the number of arrests of Zimbabwean lawyers, and in the restrictions placed on lawyers in their freedoms to carry out their profession. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and government enforced restrictions, resulted in an increase in these numbers. Alec Muchadehama, a human rights lawyer from Zimbabwe, describes the situation of lawyers under the lockdown as follows:

“ [W]e had insurmountable difficulties moving to police stations and the Courts. We would be frisked at the check points. We would not be allowed to pass despite identifying ourselves as lawyers. Whilst we were prevented from reaching our clients, they were being over detained and being held incommunicado. The case of Joana Mamombe, Cecilia Chimbiri and Netsai Marova makes sad reading. They were kidnapped by suspected State security agents. On 5 May 2020 they temporarily disappeared and were discovered 36 hours later, severely tortured. They are now facing allegations of breaking the COVID-19 regulations and spreading falsehoods prejudicial to the State.”

Recommendations

L4L and ZLHR call upon the Zimbabwean authorities to guarantee in all circumstances that lawyers in Zimbabwe are able to carry out their legitimate professional rights and duties without fear of reprisals and free of all restrictions, including judicial harassment. In its task of promoting and ensuring the proper role of lawyers, the Government of Zimbabwe should respect, and take account of, the Basic Principles within the framework of its national legislation and practice. Adherence to the Basic Principles is considered a fundamental pre-condition to fulfilling the requirement that all persons have effective access to legal assistance and representation. Furthermore, as a member of the African Union and the UN, and as a party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Zimbabwe has legal obligations to adopt measures that effectively ensure rights to liberty, freedom from arbitrary detention, freedom of expression, and fair trial.

You can access the full report here (783KB PDF)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwe_Lawyers_for_Human_Rights#:~:text=Zimbabwe%20Lawyers%20for%20Human%20Rights%20(ZLHR)%20is%20a%20not%20for,of%20the%20rule%20of%20law.

Afghanistan: Lawyer Latifa Sharifi from the Afghan women’s rights organisation Hawca rejected at Kabul airport

20/08/21

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Afghan lawyer Latifa Sharifi, a member of the Hawca association, whose main aim is to protect women’s rights, has already received several open death threats in the past. On 15 August, she tried to leave Afghanistan but was turned away at Kabul airport.

Latifa Sharifi is an Afghan lawyer who has specialised in women’s rights since 2009. She is a lawyer for Hawca, a historic Afghan women’s association. In particular, she assists women victims of domestic violence in divorce proceedings and for this reason she has received many threats and intimidations.

The Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera published on 19 August 2021 the news of the lawyer’s refoulement at Kabul airport, where she had gone on Sunday 15 August, with her husband and children, in an attempt to flee abroad. The article also reveals the content of a letter she had written to her sister who lives in America, which is a real call for help. The lawyer was reportedly harassed while taking her children to school, stones were thrown at the windows of her house and in 2017 she received a blood-stained letter stating “the next one will be written in your son’s blood”. Latifa Sharifi then had to move and work in hiding. A few years ago, in an interview, she denounced the fact that after the fall of the Taliban, it was difficult for women to denounce the violence suffered by their husbands in a country where sons after the age of 7 and daughters from the age of 9 are legally entrusted to their father. Extreme forms of rebellion by women, such as immolation, were recorded in Afghanistan.

The International Observatory for Lawyers in Danger follows with great concern the evolution of the situation in Afghanistan, and calls for the guarantee of humanitarian corridors, in particular for women and minors and for those, including lawyers, who have fought for the respect of human rights. The IADO demands that the lawyer Latifa Sharifi be immediately allowed to leave Afghanistan with her family and seek political asylum.

[…]

https://www.frontlinedefenders.org/en/statement-report/appeal-urgent-action-protect-human-rights-defenders-risk

https://news.sky.com/story/afghanistans-judges-fear-for-their-lives-as-uk-is-urged-to-protect-them-the-situation-is-worse-than-we-could-imagine-12385956

https://www.ibanet.org/IBA-Judges-Forum-Statement-Afghanistan-Judges

https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/international-legal-body-expresses-concern-for-afghan-judges-lawyers/2339288

https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/afghan-women-judges-fear-execution-1.6143010

https://www.thelawyersdaily.ca/articles/29051/afghan-judges-fearing-for-their-lives-following-taliban-takeover-

(FRANCAIS)

https://www.barreau-marseille.avocat.fr/fr/actualites/id-505-mobilisation-pour-la-defense-des-avocates-et-magistrates-afghanes

(ITALIANO)
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