Tag Archives: OHCHR

Iran/Afghanistan/Belgium: Les barreaux dénoncent la manière dont les réfugiés sont accueillis en Belgique

04/12/22

Plusieurs barreaux de Belgique se sont mis d’accord pour organiser une manifestation à Bruxelles le lundi 12 décembre afin de dénoncer la manière dont les réfugiés sont accueillis.

Les barreaux de Bruxelles, Charleroi, Dinant, Liège-Huy, Luxembourg, Mons, Namur, Tournai et Verviers organiseront une manifestation à Bruxelles le lundi 12 décembre afin de dénoncer la manière dont les réfugiés – et en particulier les Afghans et les Iraniens – sont accueillis en Belgique, annoncent-ils jeudi.

Le rassemblement aura lieu à 12h place Poelaert, devant le Palais de Justice, dans le cadre de la journée dédiée aux droits humains le 10 décembre. Les avocats se rassembleront pour évoquer et dénoncer la situation des peuples afghan et iranien, et tout particulièrement des avocats persécutés par les pouvoirs en place. Deux bâtonniers prendront la parole avant que les manifestants ne rejoignent à pied les bureaux du Commissariat général aux réfugiés et apatrides.

La Convention de Genève

Une prise de parole sera organisée à 13h place Victor Horta, en face du CGRA, afin de rappeler la nécessité de protéger les demandeurs de protection internationale et de respecter la Convention de Genève relative au statut des réfugiés.

Les barreaux disent avoir conscience que ce combat pour les droits humains n’est pas le seul et que de nombreuses personnes sont discriminées et persécutées dans le monde. Ils expliquent cependant avoir fait le choix de soutenir particulièrement les ressortissants afghans, dont la situation ne cesse de s’aggraver depuis la prise de pouvoir des talibans en août 2021, et les ressortissants iraniens, dont les droits humains et les libertés fondamentales sont bafoués.

Une traduction résumée en farsi et dari sera d’ailleurs assurée sur les deux lieux de rassemblement.

https://www.sudinfo.be/id583536/article/2022-12-04/le-barreau-de-mons-denonce-la-maniere-dont-les-refugies-sont-accueillis-en

https://www.lalibre.be/dernieres-depeches/2022/12/01/les-barreaux-reunis-pour-denoncer-la-maniere-dont-les-refugies-sont-accueillis-en-belgique-QUVYWVFNDNDOJDTHA22J62VGI4/

(ENGLISH)

https://www.ohchr.org/en/stories/2022/11/woman-life-freedom-activist-continues-her-fight-womens-rights

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2022/nov/30/destitution-is-almost-inevitable-afghan-refugees-in-greece-left-homeless-by-failed-system

https://www.jurist.org/news/2022/11/afghanistan-dispatch-taliban-are-imposing-corporal-punishment-for-crimes-and-depriving-women-of-any-access-to-justice/

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/dec/03/revealed-uk-has-failed-to-resettle-afghans-facing-torture-and-death-despite-promise

https://news.gallup.com/poll/405572/afghans-lose-hope-taliban.aspx

Macron urged to oppose Israeli deportation of French Palestinian lawyer Salah Hamouri 

03/12/22

Several charitable organizations and activist groups have called on French President Emmanuel Macron to act immediately against the expulsion of French Palestinian lawyer Salah Hamouri by Israeli authorities.

Israel on Thursday announced it had stripped Hamouri of his Jerusalem residency and planned to deport him to France, saying he was an “activist in a banned militant group.”

French citizen Hamouri, who has been held since March in administrative detention — a tool that allows Israeli authorities to hold suspects without charge for months on end — faces deportation as early as Sunday despite being a life-long resident of Jerusalem.

His charge, as announced by the Israeli Ministry of Interior, is a “failure of allegiance” toward the state of Israel, first confirmed on June 29 last year. He has not been convicted in the proceedings.

Israel claims that Hamouri is a member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a group that is considered a terrorist organization by Israel and the US.

He is a lawyer for Adameer, a rights group that assists Palestinian prisoners that Israel has banned for alleged ties to the PFLP, and previously spent seven years in prison after being convicted in an alleged plot to kill a prominent rabbi, but was released in a 2011 prisoner swap with Hamas.

Human Rights Watch, ACAT-France, Amnesty International France, the Platform of French NGOs for Palestine and the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders are appealing to Macron to immediately call on the Israeli authorities to release Hamouri.

[…]

https://www.arabnews.com/node/2210336/middle-east

https://english.wafa.ps/Pages/Details/132181

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/12/israeli-deportation-order-against-french-palestinian-activist-salah-hammouri

https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/12/02/france-should-denounce-expulsion-salah-hamouri-israel

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/dec/01/israel-strips-salah-hamouri-palestinian-french-human-rights-lawyer-jerusalem-residency

https://www.fidh.org/en/region/north-africa-middle-east/israel-palestine/israel-opt-inhumane-treatment-of-salah-hamouri-israeli-authorities

https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/05/24/joint-statement-justice-salah-hamouri

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salah_Hamouri

https://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2022/12/02/l-expulsion-de-l-avocat-franco-palestinien-detenu-en-israel-salah-hamouri-reportee-selon-ses-proches_6152728_3210.html (FRANCAIS)

https://www.hrw.org/fr/news/2022/12/02/la-france-doit-denoncer-lexpulsion-de-salah-hamouri-par-israel

https://www.rfi.fr/fr/moyen-orient/20221202-isra%C3%ABl-la-lib%C3%A9ration-et-l-expulsion-de-l-avocat-franco-palestinien-salah-hamouri-report%C3%A9es

https://www.france24.com/fr/%C3%A9missions/invit%C3%A9-du-jour/20221202-elsa-lefort-%C3%A9pouse-de-salah-hamouri-nous-voulons-que-la-france-agisse-pour-%C3%A9viter-son-expulsion

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salah_Hamouri

Iran holding protesters at secret prisons, says lawyer who fled

25/11/22

Anti-government protesters arrested in Iran‘s city of Mashhad are being held at secret prisons that lack proper amenities, a lawyer who fled the country with her family over fears for their safety has said.

Thousands of Iranians are believed to have been arrested for taking part in the nationwide protests that broke out in mid September and show no signs of abating despite a violent crackdown that has claimed nearly 400 lives, according to human rights groups.

Lawyer Marzieh Mohebi said she came to know of at least one such “black site” for detainees in Mashhad in the weeks before she fled the city.

“I am aware of new places designated for prisoners in Mashhad which do not meet the criteria for prison. They don’t have toilets, places for eating, or a medical facility for treating wounds,” Ms Mohebi told The National.

The families of some detainees have no idea where their children are, she said.

“The families of those prisoners are being kept in the dark by the Islamic Revolutionary Court and Ministry of Justice. They are in a very bad situation.”

Ms Mohebi, who has been practising law for more than two decades, was lauded by state media in 2017 for the pro bono legal assistance provided by the Soura Women Lawyers Association that she founded. She declined to say what circumstances prompted her to flee Iran, except that she feared for her family’s safety.

Iran’s judiciary said two weeks ago that it had issued arrest warrants for 1,000 people in relation to the protests, which were sparked by the death in custody of Mahsa Amini, a young woman arrested by the morality police in Tehran on charges of breaching the country’s strict dress code.

[…]

https://www.thenationalnews.com/mena/iran/2022/11/25/iran-holding-protesters-at-secret-prisons-says-lawyer-who-fled/

https://www.uianet.org/fr/actualites/iran-joint-statement-behalf-various-international-bar-associations-and-lawyers?backlist

https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements-and-speeches/2022/11/deteriorating-human-rights-situation-islamic-republic-iran

https://www.law.com/international-edition/2022/11/24/iran-must-release-imprisoned-lawyers-uk-legal-regulator-urges/

https://www.letemps.ch/monde/une-avocate-iranienne-denonce-impossible-defendre-manifestants (FRANCAIS)

https://www.cnb.avocat.fr/fr/actualites/retour-sur-lassemblee-generale-du-18-novembre-2022

Afghanistan: Taliban’s ‘Injustice’; Women Lawyers and Judges Forced to Beg for Food

23/11/22

The US official wrote in a string of tweets on Wednesday, November 23, that “One year ago today, the Taliban dissolved the Afghan Independent Bar [Association] which was a model of gender inclusion.”

“Now women are sidelined from practicing law & many women judges & lawyers are forced to beg for food for their children rather than use their skills,” Rina Amiri slammed the Taliban saying “Such injustice.”

After the Taliban took control of the country last year, the group’s leadership dissolved the Afghanistan Independent Bar Association on the 23rd of November.

The Afghan Independent Bar Association sought to advance and defend social justice, the rule of law, and the application of Islamic law in Afghanistan and was founded to foster new generations of legal professionals, improve access to fair trials, and fight against administrative corruption.

The Bar Association of Afghanistan had over 6,000 members, with women making up almost a quarter of the members, according to one of the members.

Many defense attorneys said that the current administration had revoked their licenses and stressed that they are not permitted to work on legal or criminal cases until they receive a new license from the Taliban Ministry of Justice.

https://www.jurist.org/news/2022/11/afghanistan-dispatch-shift-of-rights-directorate-into-supreme-court-will-increase-power-of-judges-versed-in-islamic-law/

https://www.devex.com/news/underfunded-and-restricted-the-struggle-of-afghan-women-s-rights-ngos-104386

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/nov/14/afghanistan-supreme-leader-orders-full-implementation-of-sharia-law-taliban

https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/32147200.html

https://www2.uottawa.ca/faculty-law/alum-brings-expertise-afghan-women-judges-visual-storytelling-project

https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2022/11/afghanistan-latest-taliban-treatment-women-and-girls-may-be-crime-against

https://www.sudouest.fr/gironde/bordeaux/solidarite-en-gironde-il-faut-aider-raana-et-muhammad-habibi-12996526.php (FRANCAIS)

https://www2.uottawa.ca/faculte-droit/un-diplome-apporte-son-expertise-un-projet-visuel-sur-les-juges-afghanes

https://www.getrevue.co/profile/ASSOCIATION-NEGAR/issues/negar-soutien-aux-femmes-d-afghanistan-numero-41-1466348

https://www.amnesty.be/infos/actualites/article/afghanistan-faut-liberer-immediatement-defenseures-droits

https://www.ildubbio.news/2022/11/23/procuratrice-afghana/ (ITALIANO)

Crackdown On Lawyers Brings To Collapse Iran’s Judicial System

14/11/22

Iranian authorities have responded to the ongoing wave of nationwide protests by arresting thousands of people who peacefully took to the streets to demand more freedoms, in the biggest threat to the clerical regime since the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

Human rights groups have voiced alarm over the arbitrary arrest, detention and ill treatment of ordinary citizens, students, journalists, civil society members, as well as political, cultural and sports figures who have been rounded up and jailed in the brutal state crackdown.

A number of them have already been tried and handed harsh sentences without being allowed access to a legal representative. Some have been extracted confessions through the use of torture.

Lawyers, who play a vital role in upholding the rule of law and protecting human rights, have also been targeted by a wave of arrests, and at least 13 of them are remanded behind bars.

Hossein Raeesi, a lawyer and professor at Canada’s Carleton University, tells IranWire that these arrests are the last nail in the coffin of Iran’s judicial system and justice.

“When there is a lawyer, the true story comes out. So, the Islamic Republic does not want a judiciary that is independent from the government. It also wants lawyers to be under the thumb of the regime so that it can do whatever it wants, whenever it wants.”

Raeesi points out that the more than 14,000 people who have been arrested in the crackdown by security forces over the past eight weeks have been denied a legal representative.

“There are more than 100,000 lawyers in Iran, but they have not been allowed to represent any of [the detainees]. Seen from this angle, the arrest of lawyers holds special significance.”

An “atmosphere of terror”

Another lawyer, Musa Barzin Khalifelou, says that security and intelligence forces “want to create an atmosphere of terror so that the lawyers would not touch [the cases of those recently detained], talk about them or join the nationwide uprising of the Iranian people.”

The hostile treatment of lawyers is not new in Iran, where Khalifelou says the judiciary’s main task is to protect the country’s rulers, not to uphold justice.

[…]

https://iranwire.com/en/politics/109818-crackdown-on-lawyers-brings-to-collapse-irans-judicial-system/

https://www.france24.com/en/middle-east/20221113-iran-charges-more-than-750-over-riots-issues-first-death-sentence

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/11/iran-stop-sentencing-peaceful-protesters-death-say-un-experts

https://www.uianet.org/en/actions/uia-irol-gravely-concerned-arrest-detention-and-prosecution-lawyers-iran

https://www.thenationalnews.com/world/uk-news/2022/11/14/twelve-swedish-iranians-issue-open-letter-in-wake-up-call-over-iranian-harassment/

https://www.asianews.it/news-en/Iran-jailing-lawyers%2C-even-those-defending-Christian-converts-57063.html

https://www.rferl.org/a/iran-lawyer-arrested-nili-protests-crackdown/32121020.html

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2022/11/12/iran-protests-mahsa-amini-courts/

https://www.iranintl.com/en/202211131182

https://www.jurist.org/news/2022/11/iran-court-issues-first-death-penalty-for-protestor-arrested-during-nationwide-mahsa-amini-protests/

https://english.alaraby.co.uk/news/least-22-protestors-may-face-death-penalty-iran

UK: Queen’s University law professor in eye of DUP leader has faced intimidation, harassment

31/10/22

A QUEEN’S University law professor has faced “a sustained campaign of intimidation and harassment over several years”, it was claimed last night.

The KRW law firm issued a statement relating to a complaint over the use of a university logo on a study.

DUP leader Sir Jeffery Donaldson raised concerns about a pending publication by Professor Colin Harvey with the university’s vice-chancellor Ian Greer.

The Lagan Valley MP is objecting to the inclusion of Queen’s logo in the study by Prof Harvey and barrister Mark Bassett called Making the Case for Irish Unity in the EU.

Prof Harvey is a board member of Ireland’s Future, the group behind a major event this month in Dublin and one to be held at the Ulster Hall in Belfast in November.

The statement issued by KRW said approval for the use of the university logo “was explicitly sought in advance and was definitively authorised, by the appropriate authority in QUB”.

It added that: “In particular, and following a sustained campaign of intimidation and harassment over several years, we expect the university to issue a definitive public statement in support of Professor Colin Harvey and thus acknowledge his significant contribution to research, education and administration over decades.

“We urge the university to defend its academic staff and further we underline that legitimate inquiry, scholarship and the ability of staff to conduct research, teach, speak, and publish without interference or penalty must be protected and maintained.

[…]

https://www.irishnews.com/news/northernirelandnews/2022/10/31/news/university_professor_in_eye_of_dup_leader_has_faced_intimidation_harassment_-2880346/

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-63458062

https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/qub-condemns-attacks-on-professor-colin-harvey-and-emphasises-importance-of-academic-freedom-42107767.html

https://www.irishnews.com/paywall/tsb/irishnews/news/northernirelandnews/2022/11/04/news/social_media_posts_targeting_colin_harvey_include_threats_to_behead_queen_s_academic-2884294/content.html

https://www.itv.com/news/utv/2022-10-31/university-working-with-police-over-threatening-commentary-against-professor

https://www.irishnews.com/news/northernirelandnews/2022/01/17/news/prof-colin-harvey-welcomes-outpouring-of-support-following-online-abuse-2561869/?param=ds441rif44T

https://www.irishnews.com/paywall/tsb/irishnews/news/northernirelandnews/2022/11/01/news/police_probe_online_threats_and_abuse_aimed_at_qub_s_professor_colin_harvey-2881215/content.html

https://www.newsletter.co.uk/news/politics/prof-colin-harvey-qub-logo-row-university-defends-academic-after-legal-letter-demands-action-3900005

https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/michelle-oneill-warns-abuse-of-qub-academic-could-spark-violence-and-demands-dup-stop-dangerous-attacks-42107767.html

https://www.newsletter.co.uk/education/prof-colin-harvey-dup-leader-jeffrey-donaldson-meets-qub-over-universitys-logo-on-united-ireland-report-3898125

https://www.irishnews.com/news/northernirelandnews/2022/10/28/news/unionists_accuse_queen_s_university_belfast_of_partisan_politics_over_united_ireland_report-2878297/

https://www.irishtimes.com/opinion/2022/08/24/where-next-for-the-constitutional-conversation-about-a-united-ireland/

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/03/attacks-against-human-rights-advocate-threaten-academic-freedom-northern

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-60866799

https://www.irishlegal.com/articles/academics-defend-human-rights-expert-colin-harvey-after-abuse

Jailed Lawyers Warn Iran’s Government of ‘Dark Horizon’ Ahead

28/09/22

Two lawyers, jailed as political prisoners in Tehran’s notorious Evin Prison, have warned the Iranian government’s disregard of public demands could lead to a “very dark future”.

Amirsalar Davoudi and Mohammadhadi Erfanian Kaseb wrote to the authorities in a letter seen by IranWire.

Davoudi is a human rights lawyer serving a 30-year sentence for “insulting officials” and “propaganda against the regime”.

Defense lawyer Erfanian, who has represented many human rights activists, was imprisoned after speaking to the media about the murder of one of his clients.

In their statement from Evin, the pair wrote: “Following the nationwide and widespread protests which were met with a series of coercive and unacceptable encounters, we draw the attention of the responsible authorities to Articles 27 and 34 of the Constitution.

“We demand the government pays heed to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

“The government should try to fulfil the reasonable and completely civil demands of the people. Failing to respond effectively to their demands may lead the remaining public trust to vanish, and paint a very dark horizon before our eyes.”

It is reported that as many as 3,000 people may have been detained in Evin Prison during ten days of protests following the death in custody of Mahsa Amini.

The Iranian authorities have responded to the protests with lethal force. At least 76 people are so far known to be killed.

“The government should refrain from making false accusations, and avoid a coercive crackdown,” the lawyers wrote.

https://iranwire.com/en/politics/108037-jailed-lawyers-warn-irans-government-of-dark-horizon-ahead/

https://english.alaraby.co.uk/news/night-raids-iran-target-activists-journalists-lawyers

https://humanrightsinir.org/en/the-number-of-arrested-lawyers-in-tehran-increases/

https://humanrightsinir.org/en/tag/mahsa-gholamalizadeh/

https://humanrightsinir.org/en/tag/saeed-jalilian/

https://www.omct.org/en/resources/statements/iran-appeals-by-five-human-rights-defenders-convicted-for-denouncing-covid-19-mismanagement-rejected

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amirsalar_Davoudi

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-briefing-notes/2022/09/concern-grows-over-violence-internet-restrictions-iran

https://reliefweb.int/report/world/human-rights-council-concludes-general-debate-human-rights-situations-require-councils-attention

https://per.euronews.com/2022/09/24/amirsalar-davoudi-iranian-lawyer-imprisoned-won-european-attornies-human-rights-prize (FARSI)

https://iranwire.com/fa/news-1/107920-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A8%DA%A9-%D9%BE%D8%A7%DA%A9%D9%86%DB%8C%D8%A7-%D9%88%DA%A9%DB%8C%D9%84-%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AF%DA%AF%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B1%DB%8C-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B2%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B4%D8%AA-%D8%B4%D8%AF/

http://www.presseagence.fr/lettre-economique-politique-paca/2022/09/27/paris-iran-les-avocats-francais-alertent-la-ministre-de-leurope-et-des-affaires-etrangeres/ (FRANCAIS)

https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/fil-dactualites/230922/droits-humains-un-avocat-iranien-emprisonne-prime-par-ses-pairs-europeens

https://www.gazette-du-palais.fr/actualites-professionnelles/le-prix-ludovic-trarieux-remis-a-lavocate-afghane-freshta-karimi-a-bordeaux/

The Philippines/USA: New York City Bar Association condemns attack on Cebu lawyer

24/09/22

The group urges the new government ‘to take all measures necessary to ensure that legal professionals are able to fulfill their professional obligations safely and without impediment’

The New York City Bar Association (NYCBA) has condemned the attempted assassination of Cebu Port Authority lawyer Karen Quiñanola-Gonzales.

“The New York City Bar Association joins the international community in condemning the attempted assassination of Karen Quiñanola-Gonzales and fears that it may be a harbinger of things to come,” the NYCBA said in a statement.

“As the CHR’s reference to ‘the continuing violence against legal professionals’ indicates, the recent attempt on the life of Quiñanola-Gonzales is by no means an isolated instance,” it added, noting the number of killings of members of the legal profession in the country during the administration of Rodrigo Duterte.

Gonzales and her son, Keith Gonzales, were driving near Hernan Cortes Street in Barangay Tipolo when they were ambushed by motorcycle-riding men.

Mandaue City police have identified the gunman behind the attack as 42-year-old swimming instructor Richard Basalo Delibo.

Lieutenant Colonel Franco Rudolf Oriol, deputy city director for operations of the Mandaue City Police Office, said they filed a complaint for two counts of frustrated murder against Delibo with the City Prosecutor’s Office on Friday, September 16.

[…]

https://www.nycbar.org/media-listing/media/detail/attempted-assassination-of-philippine-lawyer-karen-quinanola-gonzales

https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/topstories/nation/844042/ibp-calls-for-protection-of-lawyer-son-after-cebu-attack/story/

https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/09/03/22/nupl-urges-swift-probe-on-lawyers-ambush-in-cebu

https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/09/12/philippines-strong-un-rights-council-action-needed

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/09/philippines-un-human-rights-report-looks-new-administration-progress

Afghanistan: Lawyers, specifically women lawyers, are in serious danger

06/09/22

The CCBE urges the de facto authorities to reinstate the Afghanistan Independent Bar Association and allow all lawyers to practise law freely and without fear of persecution.

Les avocats, et en particulier les avocates, sont en grand danger. Le CCBE exhorte les autorités à rétablir l’Association indépendante du barreau afghan et à permettre à tous les avocats d’exercer librement et sans crainte de persécution.

Click to access EN_HRL_20220906_Afghanistan_Situation-of-lawyers-in-Afghanistan.pdf

https://www.smh.com.au/national/if-you-give-someone-1000-he-can-kill-anybody-why-judge-nellab-fled-kabul-20220719-p5b2qe.html

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/09/human-rights-council-discusses-situation-human-rights-afghanistan-focus

https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/09/human-rights-council-hold-fifty-first-regular-session-12-september-7-october

https://www.ohchr.org/en/hr-bodies/hrc/regular-sessions/session51/list-reports

https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20220912-we-are-erased-afghan-women-demand-action-at-un

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/sep/12/un-expert-describes-staggering-repression-of-women-and-girls-in-afghanistan

https://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/afghan-mp-taliban-gender-apartheid-regime-89779095

https://www.fidh.org/en/region/asia/afghanistan/oral-statement-for-the-interactive-dialogue-with-the-special

https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/09/12/international-criminal-court-should-reach-decision-afghanistan

https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/en/reports/rights-freedom/un-human-rights-warns-of-afghanistans-descent-into-authoritarianism/

https://www.ibanet.org/IBAHRI-calls-for-creation-of-a-dedicated-accountability-mechanism-for-Afghanistan-in-joint-letter

https://www.dw.com/en/afghanistan-un-warns-taliban-against-harassing-its-female-employees/a-63098371

https://www.law360.com/articles/1523654

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2022/09/13/afghanistan-la-lutte-pour-le-respect-des-droits-fondamentaux-doit-continuer_6141329_3232.html (FRANCAIS)

European Court of Human Rights: President Warsaw Bar v. Poland

31/08/22

https://privacyinternational.org/legal-action/pietrzak-and-others-v-poland

https://en.panoptykon.org/